Posted on December 14, 2018
I wrote an article a few years ago (The Golden One Physique Ideals), where I talked a bit about my own physique ideals. In it I mentioned Sam Bond, whom I listen as one of my inspirations when I first started training in the gym. As you might see if you compare the pictures of him in my original article he has since altered his aesthetics somewhat, opting for Viking mode instead, much like myself. Below is an interview I did with him.
M: Greetings, Sam. I discovered you about eight years ago when I first started my journey in the Temple of Iron. I was looking for physical inspirations and I was never fond of the typical bodybuilding look. You, however, have a physique that is more harmonious and natural to the eye, whilst at the same time being massive. What is your own training philosophy?
S: First of all, thank you for the kind words. It’s great to hear I had a positive impact in other someone else’s training, especially since others inspired me too. My training approach evolved over the years; you could say my training matured but part of the success was the journey I went on. Health was always a focus but not necessarily deliberately. Initially, I chose not to use drugs simply because I knew to be at the top, you had to do tonnes of performance enhancing drugs to be at the top. Or, alternative, one could stay natural (drug free) and still be at the top. So initially, I said no to drugs only because I wasn’t prepared to take everything under the sun to get to the top. Then, over time, I found myself saying no to drugs actually more thoughtfully and wanting only to be healthy rather than not wanting to avoid the effects of drug abuse. Likewise, as health became more important, so too did balance, athleticism and a healthy mind. The training matured into less gym-rat orientated to becoming very focused on being the best I can be. Needless to say, nutrition was a big part of the health focus but since you can’t achieve anything without eating right, it was the thing that underpinned everything.
M: What were your sources of inspiration when you first started lifting? Anyone or anything in particular that served as the initial motivation to get into the habit of going to the gym?
S: Let’s face it, we’ve all been inspired by Arnie somewhere along the way. There were others along the way such as Mike O’Hearn and several wrestlers but really it was Arnie and to a lesser extent Sly Stallone. It’s not that I don’t like to admire the big physiques like Coleman or Phil Heath – I do. But the more I’ve searched for inspiration, the more I’ve come back to just really admiring the classics.
M: How has your training looked like? And what would you say is the most important differences between training naturally (i.e. without steroids) versus when taking exogenous hormones?
S: I have observed those using drugs who can make improvements without really following the basics. I think you can look back at training and identify that in the 70s/80s taking two distinct routes. Those that took drugs could use simple hypertrophy methods and not just enjoy short term gains but long term. Those that stayed clean, have had to use strength training to progress in the long run. We can all do 6 weeks or pyramid training (12, 10, 8, 6) and see some instant mass. But it’s glycogen and water storage. There’s very little long term gain in that “pump” training with cute exercises. Those that do take drugs should do what the naturals do – use heavy basic compound exercises and focus on getting strong. The size will come if you train the whole body as a strength unit.
M: How does your diet look like? And has this changed over the years?
S: What I did towards the end (and would be doing now if not taking a break) wasn’t how I started. I made plenty of mistakes along the way but let’s not focus on that. Let’s explain how it worked in the end. I would approach the non competitive time of year in a similar way to content prep. Whereas in content prep you’re tweaking macros and gradually dialling it down, I would swing the other way in the off season. Add a few more carbs and see what happens. Add some fat and see how the body fat levels manage vs injury recovery etc. So it was all trial and error. I think the typical day consisted of approx. 4100 calories spread over about 7 small meals and 4 supplement intakes. I also spent some time investigating the extremes of supplements – nothing vs all of it and everything in between. I was sponsored by Maximuscle and very fortunate to have a generous allowance that gave me more supplements than I could take (yet I still did). Ultimately, whilst taking tonnes and tonnes of supplements didn’t make a difference, taking some supplements did. I found a few basic protein shakes, creatine EE and natural test boosters like Tribulus made the difference. I always recommend Udo’s oil for the avoidance of doubt. What a fantastic product!
M: You were previously the gladiator Atlas on the popular tv-show. What are you up to today? And does your training look similar to how it did then?
S: Yes that was a lot of fun and probably what I’m know best for. I’m actually taking a break from training. My wife and I were lucky to have a daughter so I thought I’d take some time off the gym and let the injuries heal. It’s been quite a journey to not train. Aspects of life that I had never struggled with became real (stress for example) and where I thought I’d find it hard to lose the routine, I found it very easy to walk away. However, I’ve always known it’s temporary and I’m planning to hit the gym hard again soon at some point. Whether or not I choose to sacrifice everything necessary in order to compete in natural bodybuildng again is a different matter. But certainly training I will return to – if not for enjoyment then for mental health reasons!
M: What advice would you give to those just starting out in the gym?
S: It can be a really exciting journey and it can be the complete opposite. You need to keep it fun – it’s the only way you stick at it for long enough to see results. It takes time to see results too. You need to be thoughtful, createful (creative), well informed, ambitious…..I could go on let’s face it.
I am, to the core, an advocate of strength training for people. There are exceptions, but ultimately, if you want big muscles, you must lift big weights. All advice I can give would be to keep learning about this pursuit and make sure that you master the basics. Big heavy compound movements are worth far more than cute exercises like hamstring curls (though they have their place). The moment someone starts doing “21s” on arm curls I suspect they need a steer in the right direction.
I guess it’s about goals. People should try and set goals and then strive to achieve. Even if they fail, it doesn’t matter. Just try again.
And always use free weights!
M: Do you have any advice for young guys thinking about taking steroids?
S: It’s a very hard topic to offer advice on. And it’s something almost everyone has something to say about (often uninformed opinions). I’m certainly no expert in the drugs but I’m well versed in saying “no”. Everyone just needs to forge their own path in training (and life for that matter). Whatever decisions we make, they should be well informed decision. Decisions made in haste often can’t be undone. I’d encourage everyone to really look at the choices they are making and make sure they could justify those decisions. I’d also encourage no one to take one person’s advice and that includes my own. We owe it to ourselves to go out and gain as much knowledge as we can. I think it more people did this, there would be fewer people making mistakes in the gym, which could include those who have said “yes” to drugs without thinking carefully enough.
M: Thank you for your time, Sam. Do you have any other wisdom to impart to my readers?
S: Be inspired. By someone. By something. By anything.
Posted on November 23, 2018
This is not an attempt at moralising over consumption during Black Friday, it is merely an explanation as to why neither Legio Gloria nor Jotunheim Nutrition has any sales for this day (or for any day for that matter). Black Friday is a symptom of an ultra-commercial culture, which sees consumption for the sake of consumption as something worth celebrating. Legio Gloria is a concept against the modern world, so it does not make much sense in joining the festivities of said modern world.
The reason for buying a Legio Gloria garment must never be because of its price, the monetary price is not even the actual price you pay for it. The total price is the monetary price in addition to the countless hours spend on the path of glory – i.e. the path of constant self-improvement. A Legio Gloria garment is deserved via the blood and sweat brought forth whilst honing your physical or martial prowess, and the hours reading in order to attain a higher level of Enlightenment. Furthermore, competing in price against brands who have their production in third world countries is not sustainable. I encourage you to have a look in your wardrobe, the majority of your garments are most likely made in sweatshops by underpaid workers. It is time to bring back the production to Europe. That is why all of our products are made in Europe; it is not about the money – it is about sending a message.
It is of course also about money but the greater goal always comes first.
The ultimate time to purchase a Legio Gloria garment is when you have deserved it, it might be now, or it might be in three months when you have reached a certain goal you have set-up for yourself. Either way, wear it with pride, and make sure that you represent the garments in the best possible way.
Posted on November 18, 2018
It is my great pleasure to announce the new releases for Legio Gloria and to take this opportunity to elaborate a bit on the company and the philosophy behind it.
The philosophy is beautiful in its simplicity. I want the clothes to be the best they can be, I want to aim as high as possible. I never saw any reason in settling for less. Moreover, this is a long-term endeavour, this is not about quick monetary gain (read more about that here). In fact I have yet to take out any financial assets from the company. I have reinvested everything to be able to bring out more and better products.
The clothing (the same applies for the training gear and supplements) are closely linked with my own personal honour. The absolute majority of customers are people that put their trust in me, therefore it is my sacred duty to maintain this trust. Thus it is always very satisfactory to receive praise and confirmation that this trust was well placed. This goes beyond clothing and supplements; my word is of supreme importance for everything I do. Maintaining this trust will be important for all coming endeavours as well (whatever they might be). That is why I put so much work into the company and why I view it in the long-term.
Furthermore, Legio Gloria is not only meant to be a clothing brand, it is supposed to be a lifestyle and a philosophy, a metaphysical legion if you will. There are so many young men cast adrift in the Modern World without access to many of the things our ancestors had access to; a Männerbund and a thriving local community for example, or a shared worldview with your peers. Being the only high Thumos guy among numales at the university or being surrounded by self-hating Whites or people not of your tribe can indeed be a less than enjoyable experience. Knowing that there are others in a similar situation makes it easier.
First of the releases is the long awaited re-release of the Byzantine Black Sun. The Byzantine eagle stands for European unity, something that is needed more than ever before. The Black Sun stands for a spiritual awakening, something that also is needed more than ever before. Un-Enlightened individuals might find the Black Sun controversial, so keep this in mind; wearing it also means that you must be able to back it up.
The Legio Gloria Weaponshield T-Shirt is just as the Byzantine Black Sun remade with a different cut; it is larger in the chest and the arms go a bit higher (so your guns are being shown at all times). Wear this garment with a firm gaze and a straight back.
We have also released two different rashguards. The Phoenix symbolises Evropa (Western Civilisation – or European Civilisation) reborn from the ashes of its death. The sword and book emblem symbolises the struggle for Enlightenment, both physical and metaphysical. The sword stands for the physical part and the book for the metaphysical part. The wings stand for righteousness. Both designs are meant to give you a boost in inspiration whilst training hard. I always use various mental techniques when training (in order to push myself harder – before a heavy lift or at the last rounds of sparring), these designs have a similar purpose: When you are tired – look yourself in the mirror to remind yourself that you are training for a higher purpose.
The Dragon Prince Swimming Shorts were perhaps a bit oddly timed, being released in November (perfect time for Yule/Christmas though 🙂 ). However, they took some time to get right and, yet again, since the purpose of the clothes is to be worn for a long time they will be equally testosteronous to wear come Summer – or now, if you are located in more tropical environments.
The artwork is inspired by St. Göran och Draken (St. George and the Dragon), which is a common figure in European history. The Swedish version commemorates victories over Denmark (the dragon). This version is to symbolise your victory over an enemy – whatever that enemy might be (detrimental addictions or other troubles for example).
If you think that these shorts are extremely aesthetic (which they are), but do not think you are in good enough shape yet to be worthy of wearing them; make sure to train very hard until next Summer.
Posted on October 15, 2018
I am proud to announce three new releases for Legio Gloria. First and foremost is the third version of our popular Handsome Shorts. The original Handsome Shorts were released last Summer, and I have trained many a gym session in them over the Autumn and Winter. Although, I was very satisfied with them I knew they could be improved to be a bit more comfortable in the Temple of Iron, thus we added some elastan to the garment making it a bit more flexible (always good when squatting). The Handsome Shorts: Mark II were (and still are) a very solid pair of shorts to train in. The alterations we made this time around was to add metal rings to optimise the aesthetics of the garment, as well as to optimise their functionality by making the pockets a bit deeper, in accord with my own assessment and per the feedback of some of our valued customers.
The name itself; Handsome Shorts, it is derived from a quote in the Horus Heresy book Know No Fear, where the Primarch Guilliman is being described in the following manner: “He is handsome, in a plain way. He is handsome the way a regent on an old coin is handsome, like a good sword is handsome.” I thought this was an adequate description of the shorts as well, since they are in fact handsome in a plain way.
The next release is the Mithrandir Exploration Hoodie. The name explains its purpose; Mithrandir is the Elven name for Gandalf and means grey wanderer. Although it can definitely be utilised as a gym hoodie it is designed to be a bit warmer than a regular hoodie, making it well suited to exploring this beautiful world of ours, especially as the weather gets a bit colder.
The emblem on the chest symbolises the struggle for Enlightenment, both physical and metaphysical. The sword stands for the physical part and the book for the metaphysical part. Wear this garment with pride; it is meant to be worn only by those who live by the ideal.
Lastly, the Handsome Exploration Tracksuit Bottoms are just as the hoodie designed to be a bit warmer, making it suitable to wear as the weather gets colder. Proudly made in Poland – as is all of our garments.
All garments are available at https://legiogloria.com/
Moreover, be sure to follow us on Instagram: @legiogloria
Also, if you are uploading any epic pictures, be sure to tag them with #legiogloria
Lastly, we have a lot of new releases incoming in a few weeks (including the long awaited Forbidden Garment) so stay tuned for that.
Posted on August 19, 2018
We are currently developing two new Whey-80 products, both sweetened with stevia instead of aspartame for those who do not like the latter. I will continue to use the products with aspartame however. The new flavours will be banana and strawberry. Magnesium is the next mineral in the pipeline for releases. You can follow us on Instagram for more news and updates: @jotunheimnutrition
The webstore is available here: https://jotunheimnutrition.com/
Be sure to follow us on Instagram for more news and updates: @legiogloria
Posted on July 15, 2018
I am very happy to present the new launch at Legio Gloria
The garments themselves are designed to fit an athletic physique, since this clothing brand is for men who place high emphasis on both the physical and mental journey upwards. The designs are high testosterone with messages against the current paradigm.
Your Ancestors Are Watching
A great reminder when looking to set the pace high (no matter your endeavour). If you know your Ancestors (or someone else you seek to make proud) are watching you; you will strive higher.
This mental technique is something that has gotten me through many a hard session both in the Temple of Iron and the Temple of Mars – it applies no matter what you do (also when it comes to resisting degeneracy).
Ride The Tiger
Traditionalist philosopher Julius Evola’s famous book restructured into an even more high Thumos concept. Still riding the tiger in the sense that you avoid being trampled underfoot by the tiger (i.e. succumbing to degeneracy etc.), but also (to a certain extent) controlling the tiger. Of course you cannot control modernity but a good example of this is how you approach the Immaterium, certain men fall for the temptation of pornography (being trampled underfoot), others manage to stay clear of it (riding the tiger in the classic sense). And a few manage to stay clear of the temptations and at the same time make full use of the treasures of the Immaterium (knowledge and communication among other things). Riding the tiger successfully means standing above the decadent aspects of the modern world yet at the same time plundering it of riches. I will elaborate on this in a coming video as I think it is a very valuable concept for us Men Among the Ruins.
Nordic Lifting Straps
These are similar to the current ones, the difference is that these are non-adjustable. Which to choose is up to personal preference. I prefer these ones.
Gym Stringer – Your Ancestors Are Watching
Same message as for the t-shirt but for a traditional gym stringer.
Valsgärde Tracksuit Bottoms
New tracksuit bottoms. The design is a bit different from the Handsome Winter ones. As the name suggest the former ones are a bit thicker and thus also warmer. The Valsgärde ones are a bit thinner and also a bit more fitted to get that classic aesthetics look. They also have pockets with zippers. Although they are quite tight in their fit they are also quite flexible, as demonstrated below.
Stay tuned for more releases in the coming time (various new garments are incoming). Follow us on Instagram @legiogloria and remember to tag with #legiogloria if you take any epic pictures.
Moreover, if you are in the Nordic countries, be sure to head over to Jotunheim Nutrition to get some high quality supplements.
Posted on July 8, 2018
I am very pleased to announce the launch of Jotunheim Nutrition. This has been a long time coming and something I am genuinely excited about. First and foremost I recommend you to read the FAQ on the site to attain some Mimer-level knowledge gains: FAQ
The aesthetics of the brand will be inspired by mythology and folklore, something that has always been close to my heart. Moreover, the aim with the brand is to serve as a solid point of knowledge in a sea of questionable content. Simply put, there are plenty of brands run by people without adequate nutritional wisdom, or more importantly, who does not go along the path of honour. I know that my customers are my supporters, this is a huge motivating factor for putting out the best products (along with the fact that I will use them myself). Selling a product to someone who trusts you creates a high level of accountability. I revel in this high level of accountability as it pushes me further along the path of excellence (I strive for excellence in all of my endeavours).
Below I have listed the first products. These are essentially what I use (and since I want to use my own products I started with these). More products will appear gradually. Some of those include; Creatine Monohydrate, Vitamin D, Omega-3, Vegan Protein Powder (with Stevia) and Magnesium (in addition to new products we will also release new flavours and versions of the current products). In addition to adding products to the store we will also add countries to the list we sell to. We are currently selling to the following countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Belgium, France and Ireland.
The United States, The United Kingdom, Canada and Norway are all high priority (many glorious lads in those countries) and in the pipeline for the coming month. The reason for this is due to issues regarding shipping and tolls (since the listed countries are not in the EU).
EAA is a mix between a supplement and food. I use it either as a drink prior to the session (or sipping it in the beginning of the session), or as a nice drink at other times, i.e. when writing or watching some YouTube etc. A good friend has written an article on EAAs, you can read it here for additional insights: Amino Acids
Furthermore, I am very happy with the taste of this product, it was good on the first try (i.e. the first test sample), better at the second try and great on the third and final try.
Zinc is a valuable mineral to ensure healthy testosterone levels, especially when training hard. This is a supplement in the true sense of the word. Moreover, if you are looking for a libido booster; this is it. There are several supplements being marketed as testosterone boosters, many of questionable nature. Zinc, however, is a true friend indeed.
Whey (and protein powder in general) is technically speaking not a supplement; but rather food. The optimal amount of protein required to build muscles may differ between individuals but a good aim is 1,6-1,8 grams of protein per kg of bodyweight.
I prefer drinking whey to bolster my protein intake (which usually lands at around 170 g on a regular day) rather than eating more meat. Whey and eggs has been the mainstay of my diet over these last years.
The Pear-Vanilla taste is legitimately a tasty product. The Chocolate Whey is also tasty.
The shaker is made in accord with what I wanted to use myself; an aesthetically pleasing design with material that is free from toxic plastic (only toxic masculinity here!), the shaker is made in gallant Hungary.
As mentioned above we will continue to release products and add countries to our list, so stay tuned for that. Be sure to follow us on Instagram: @jotunheimnutrition for more information and posts about nutrition and training. Also, be sure to follow Legio Gloria on Instagram for new releases (some severely epic ones coming next week): @legiogloria
And lastly, if you want to place an order for any products you can do so here: Jotunheim Nutrition Webshop
Thank you for reading, have an epic week.
Posted on June 19, 2018
Lord of the Rings has many great themes. One of my favourites is the battle between the environment and the industry (the Ents of Fangorn vs Isengard). Which is an excellent critique by Tolkien of the Industrial Revolution, and translated to our day: rampant Free Market Capitalism vs Mother Earth (so same battle for all three). As I have stated before I am all for Capitalism that is dictated by certain principles. Such as principles of sustainability. For example: fishing is acceptable. Completely depopulating the oceans of fish is not acceptable. Plenty more of examples can be found.
We don’t have all the answers right now but incorporating a sense of Nature in our metapolitical and cultural struggle is of paramount importance.
For more information check out this video I recently made.
Posted on June 2, 2018
As the launch of Jotunheim Nutrition draws nearer there are a few questions that bears elaborating on, one of them is in regard to aspartame. The short answer to the question in the title is: no, aspartame is not dangerous. Had I concluded that aspartame was dangerous I would not have consumed products containing it.
Below are a few scientific studies for those who would like to know more.
NO EVIDENCE OF HARM – ASPARTAME LINKS TO MEDICINE JOURNALS AND STUDIES DEBUNKING MYTHS
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/aspartame.html – ‘’ Most studies in people have not found that aspartame use is linked to an increased risk of cancer.
One early study suggested that an increased rate of brain tumors in the US during the 1980s might have been related to aspartame use. However, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the increase in brain tumor rates actually began back in the early 1970s, well before aspartame was in use. And most of the increase was seen in people age 70 and older, a group that was not exposed to the highest doses of aspartame, which might also make this link less likely. Other studies have not found an increase in brain tumors related to aspartame use. ’’
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the use of aspartame and other artificial sweeteners in the United States. In 2007, the FDA stated:
Considering results from the large number of studies on aspartame’s safety, including five previously conducted negative chronic carcinogenicity studies, a recently reported large epidemiology study with negative associations between the use of aspartame and the occurrence of tumors, and negative findings from a series of three transgenic mouse assays, FDA finds no reason to alter its previous conclusion that aspartame is safe as a general purpose sweetener in food.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) assesses the safety of sweeteners such as aspartame in the European Union. According to a 2009 report from its Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food:
Overall, the Panel concluded, on the basis of all the evidence currently available… that there is no indication of any genotoxic or carcinogenic potential of aspartame and that there is no reason to revise the previously established ADI for aspartame of 40 mg/kg [body weight].
‘’According to Walters, the body has mechanisms for filtering out small amounts of methanol. About 24 g of methanol is considered a lethal dose, but aspartame, which is 180 times sweeter than sugar, is used only in milligram amounts. What’s more, Stadler notes, methanol already occurs in many foods at higher levels than those delivered by products containing aspartame.
However, Walters says, people with the rare genetic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) lack an enzyme for properly metabolizing phenylalanine, so they need to regulate their aspartame intake. In the U.S., all products containing aspartame must, by law, carry a warning for PKU patients.’’
‘’Although the National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not conducted standard 2-year rodent bioassays with aspartame, a number of chronic rodent cancer studies have been performed and are outlined in the Introduction to this report. These studies have been interpreted as showing no consistent carcinogenic response that would raise concerns about the safety of this widely consumed artificial sweetener. ‘’
‘’aspartame was well-tolerated by experimental animals given doses of up to 6 to 8 g aspartame/kg body weight per day (Molinary, 1984). In the current studies, the highest dietary concentration of 50,000 ppm was estimated to provide doses of between 6 and 10 g aspartame/kg body weight per day throughout the studies with all three mouse models. There were no specific clinical signs or consistent effects on body weight gains or survival in any of the studies.’’
‘’A double blind study subjected 55 overweight youth to 13 weeks of a 1,000 Kcal diet accompanied by daily capsules of aspartame or lactose placebo. Both groups lost weight, and the difference was not significant. Weight loss was attributed to caloric restriction. Similar results were reported for a 12-week, 1,500 Kcal program using either regular or diet soda.’’
‘’Interestingly, when sugar was covertly switched to aspartame in a metabolic ward, a 25 percent immediate reduction in energy intake was achieved. Conversely, knowingly ingesting aspartame was associated with increased overall energy intake, suggesting overcompensation for the expected caloric reduction. Vigilant monitoring, caloric restriction, and exercise were likely involved in the weight loss seen in multidisciplinary programs that included artificial sweeteners.’’
‘’Does aspartame produce enough methanol to harm people? The short answer is, “there is a lot of controversy around this question,” as you will see in several of the links below. Most people regularly consume up to 10 mg of methanol per day as part of their normal diet. One 12-ounce can of aspartame-sweetened soda contains about 200 milligrams of aspartame [reference]. You’d add a tenth of this amount to your diet as methanol following digestion (20 mg).’’
‘’Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that acute ingestion of aspartame does not have any detectable psychological or metabolic effects in humans.’’
- Some concern requiring further investigation exist for some cancers, especially hematopeitic ones, but the data do not clearly identify a relationship.
- Overall exposures up to 40 mg/kg/day do not pose safety concerns based on modeling of evidence-based safe blood levels in a dose-response model.
- Overall, intakes of aspartame are not associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in populations who do not have PKU.
‘’The problem with many of the “aspartame toxin” stories is that they contain just enough science to make them sound plausible. Unless one understands the science, it is hard to figure out what is right. The short reply to this allegation is that it doesn’t make any difference if there is ethanol in fruits and vegetables or in aspartame-sweetened products, because none provide enough methanol to cause toxicity.’’
‘’Therefore, the argument that the ethanol protects against methanol poisoning is correct. However, this fact applies only in cases of actual methanol poisoning and has absolutely nothing to do with dietary sources of methanol. In the case of consuming aspartame (as with fruit and vegetable drinks or other sources of methanol), the levels are so low that it makes absolutely no difference whether ethanol is present or not.’’
‘’These results further document the safety of the long-term consumption of aspartame at doses equivalent to the amount of aspartame in approximately 10 L of beverage per day.’’
‘’However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.’’